Issue Briefs


An overview of A-Levels covering their history, evolution, recent reforms and the political discussion around the exam system.Read More

Academy School

An overview of the academy school programme in the UK, its history, operation, and roll out, alongside the arguments made by the supporters and opponents of acadmies.Read More
Affordabe housing

Affordable housing

An overview of the political issue of affordable housing, its history, international comparisons, and the current policy debate around the issue in the United Kingdom.Read More

Air Passenger Duty

An overview of airline passenger duty, how it works, its history, the amount raised, and the various arguments made for and against reforming the levy. Only Chad has higher flight taxes than the UK.Read More
Air quality

Air Quality

An overview of air pollution, the current levels in the UK, the legal position post Brexit, and the political debate that is frequently associated with this issue. Read More
Alcohol Duties

Alcohol duty

An overview of the alcohol duty regime in the UK: current duty levels, their history, the impact of Brexit, and the arguments made for and against higher alcohol duties.Read More
NHS 111

Ambulance Service

An overview of the Ambulance Service, the emergency response wing of the National Health Service (NHS).Read More


An overview of angling in the UK, the current level of participation in recreational fishing, the claims around animal cruelty, and the counter arguments made to support the activity.Read More

Animal Welfare

An overview of the animal welfare debate in the United Kingdom, its history, the current legal framework and protections, and the main areas of active political debate around animal welfare.Read More


An overview of the apprenticeship system in the UK; its history, how it operates and is funded, and the debate around the current system.Read More

Artificial Intelligence Policy

An overview of government policy on artificial intelligence. What are the threats and opportunities presented by AI for the UK?Read More
Arts Funding

Arts Funding

An overview of arts funding, covering the current provisions, and the arguments made for and against public funding of the sector.Read More

NHS Abortion

An overview of abortion, covering the current legal framework in the UK, the history of the issue, and the ongoing political debate around abortion.Read More