3G mobile telecommunications

What is 3G? 3G – short for third generation – is a generic term for the next generation of mobile telecommunications systems. Mobile phones today are predominantly ‘2G’, and use the GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) or CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) digital systems. These protocols support high bit-rate voice communications and limited data...

5G Masts

What is 5G? The G system was first established in 1980, following the invention of the mobile phone which allowed analogue data to be transmitted via phone calls. 5G (fifth generation) wireless network technology was introduced in 2019 as a significantly faster and more capable upgrade of its forerunner 4G. 5G operates through a combination...


A-Levels are properly referred to as the Advanced General Certificate of Education. They are one of the types of principal examination course studied by pupils in England, Wales and Northern Ireland immediately after the conclusion of compulsory education,

Abbott, Diane

Diane Abbott, Labour MP for Hackney North and Stoke Newington


What is abortion? Abortion describes the medical procedure for the premature termination of pregnancy. Abortion procedures change according to the gestation (stage) of the pregnancy. The gestation is measured in weeks counting from the first day of a woman’s last menstrual period. These methods range from the administration of drugs at early stages, through to...

Abrahams, Debbie

Debbie Abrahams, Labour MP for Oldham East and Saddleworth


What are academies? In the English education system, academies are publicly-funded schools which operate independently of local authorities, doing so in a framework which the government claims is designed to promote innovation and raise school standards. Academies have greater autonomy than traditional maintained state schools in areas such as the delivery of the curriculum, setting...

Action Programmes (Europe)

Upon appointment, the EU Commission issues a five-year action programme, stating broadly the actions and legislation it intends to pursue. A more specific version of this is issued each year. In addition, action programmes for particular policy areas are issued that do not necessarily coincide with the Commission's term of office. This action programme is...

Adams, Nigel

Nigel Adams, Conservative MP for Selby and Ainsty

Adjournment Debates

A debate on a motion for the adjournment of the House (an adjournment debate) allows for an issue to be debated before the House of Commons then adjourns for the day. Motions to adjourn are thus technical devices to allow for a discussion and debate around an issue to occur, without the actual issue in...

Adoption and Fostering

Adoption is the term given for the permanent transfer of legal rights in relation to the parental responsibility of a child. Foster care describes the temporary acquisition of guardianship rights in relation to a child. Foster care is often used when a child is waiting to be adopted or the courts are considering an adoption order.

Adrian Bailey

Adrian Bailey, Labour MP for West Bromwich West

Adrian Sanders

Torbay, Liberal Democrat

Affordable housing

What is affordable housing? There is no absolute consensus on the definition of ‘affordable housing’. The government defines it as ‘social rented, affordable rented and intermediate housing provided to specified eligible households whose needs are not met by the market’. Other definitions of ‘affordable housing’ focus more specifically on the relationship between household income and spending on...

Afolami, Bim

Bim Afolami is the Conservative MP for Hitchin and Harpenden, having first been elected to Parliament in 2017.The Hitchin and Harpenden constituency is found within the county of Hertfordshire and covers the towns of Hitchin and Harpenden, as well as the surrounding villages. Bim was re-elected in the 2019 General Election with a majority of 6,895  over the...

Afriyie, Adam

Adam Afriyie, Conservative MP for Windsor

Aidan Burley

Cannock Chase, Conservative

Aiken, Nickie

Nickie Aiken is‌ ‌the Conservative MP‌ ‌for‌ the Cities of London and Westminster, ‌having‌ ‌first‌ ‌been‌ ‌elected‌ ‌to‌ ‌Parliament‌ ‌in‌ 2019‌. As per its name, her constituency covers the very heart of London and includes the financial districts of London and Westminster itself.   Most of London’s major landmarks such as Buckingham Palace, St Paul’s Cathedral,...

Air Passenger Duty

What is Air Passenger Duty Air passenger duty (APD) is a tax charged on passenger flights departing from UK airports. From 1 April 2021, airline passenger duty ranged from £13 to £541, depending on the destination and class of travel. Some three quarters of airline flights are said to be taxed at the lowest band...