Reference

Committee Stage

This stage is normally at least two weeks after Second Reading. There are two types of committee stage – Standing Committee and a Committee of the Whole House. Either may consider a Bill or the clauses of a Bill may be split between the two.

Common agricultural policy

The key objectives of the common agricultural policy (CAP), as enshrined in the EU treaties, are to: Increase agricultural productivity thus to ensure a fair standard of living for agricultural producers; stabilise markets; assure availability of supplies; ensure reasonable prices to consumers.

Common Agricultural Policy and Common Fisheries Policy (Europe)

Common Agricultural Policy Agriculture accounts for only 2.5 per cent of EU GDP and 5.5 per cent of employment, and yet alone it accounts for between 40 and 50 per cent of the EU's annual spending. There are a number of reasons for the enormous attention paid to agriculture by the EU. Historically, protection for...

Common Fisheries Policy

The European Union's Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) was adopted in 1983, with the objective of ensuring that declining fish stocks are exploited responsibly - protecting the environment and the interests of the fishing industry and consumers.

Common Foreign and Security Policy

The Maastricht Treaty of 1993 allows the EU to develop a Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), covering all areas of foreign and security policy.

Companies Act 2006

What is the 2006 Companies Act? The 2006 Companies Act is the main act now regulating British company law since. It replaced the Companies Acts of 1985 and 1989. The 2006 Companies Act was a long-awaited reform of company law, and emerged only after two solid years of deliberations and drafting. Its effects have been...

Composition

Members of the House of Lords are called peers. About 687 people have the right to sit in the House of Lords but the they do not all derive their right to sit from the same place. Members of the Lords fall into the following categories – life peers, remaining hereditary peers, law lords (collectively...

Computer Misuse Act

What is the Computer Misuse Act? The main purpose of the Computer Misuse Act (CMA) was to tackle cyber crime by making unauthorised access to, and modification of, computer data illegal. The Act represented the first major legislative attempt to tackle cyber threats and criminalise hacking, viruses, malware, and spyware. Why was the 1990 Computer...

Conference of the Parties

What does COP stand for? COP stands for the ‘Conference of the Parties’. What is COP 26? COP  is the supreme decision making body of world governments that meets every year to forge a global response to the climate emergency. COP 26 is the 26th meeting of this body. Under the 1992 United Nations Framework...

Congestion charge

The congestion charge is a daily levy imposed on drivers choosing to drive within central London. It applies between 07:00 and 18:00 on Monday to Friday, excluding public holidays.

Conor Murphy

Newry and Armagh, Sinn Fein

Conservative Party

Overview The Conservative and Unionist Party, most commonly known as the Conservative Party or Tory Party, is the current governing party in the British House of Commons. After the 2019 General Election, the Conservatives held 364 out of the 650 seats in the House of Commons. The Party’s Peers also accounted for 243 out of the...

Consideration of Amendments

If a Bill is amended in the Lords or Commons, and the Lords or Commons reject or change the other House’s amendments, it must return to the other House so it can endorse or reject the amendments. Proceedings on the Consideration of Amendments are programmed as with all other stages. The Government tables motions agreeing...

Consideration of Commons Amendments

If a Bill is amended in the Commons, it must return to the Lords for peers to endorse or reject changes made there. The Government tables motions agreeing or disagreeing with Commons Amendments. It may also move amendments in lieu of changes rejected. Given the balance of power in Parliament, the Lords are in these...

Consideration of referred proposals (Europe)

The council is the EU's principal legislative body, a role it shares with the EP in some cases. It has greater powers to block and to facilitate commission proposals than the EP. Once a proposal from the commission is received by the council's general secretariat, it goes through two stages before reaching the Council of...

Consultation, Co-Decision, Co-Operation and Assent procedures (Europe)

The EP's opinions carry a level of importance that is determined by the procedure under which a proposal is being pursued. The relevant procedure for any particular proposal is set out in the treaties. The four procedures in use are: 1. Consultation 2. Co-decision 3. Co-operation 4. Assent The first two are the most important,...

Consultations

Government consultations are sounding exercises on the possibility of a government policy or a change in policy. They can be formal or informal, inviting views from interested groups and individuals, and may take the form of a series of open questions put to the consultee. In some cases, the consultees for changes in the law...

Consumer Rights Act 2015

What is the Consumer Rights Act? The Act amends consumer law and lays out the rights of shoppers in a clear and comprehensive way. Notable changes include new regulations regarding faulty products and defective goods, unfair contract terms and digital products. The aim of the 2015 Consumer Rights Act was to aid both consumers and...

Cooper, Daisy

Daisy Cooper is the Liberal Democrat MP for St Albans, having first been elected to Parliament in 2019. Daisy became the first Liberal to hold the St Albans seat since 1906, gaining the seat from the Conservatives with a majority of 6,293 over the Conservative Party. The constituency of St Albans covers the Cathedral city...