Reference

Argar, Edward

Edward Argar, Conservative MP for Charnwood

Eurozone financial crisis

The eurozone crisis refers to the on-going financial difficulties within the euro area which were precipitated by the collapse of the global economy in 2008 and exacerbated by the record budget deficits of certain individual member states.

Embassies, High Commissions and Consulates

What are Embassies, High Commissions and Consulates? British Embassies and High Commissions together comprise the UK’s “diplomatic missions” overseas. The role of a UK diplomatic mission is to function as the channel of communication between the British government and that of the host country, to act as the official representative of the UK (in general,...

Exclusion of Pupils

For disruptive or violent pupils, exclusion is a school's most powerful disciplinary tool. It is the most serious punishment available to head teachers to tackle unruly students and may be for a fixed period, a number of fixed periods, or in extreme cases, permanent.

EU Withdrawal

Since the establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community under the Treaty of Paris in 1951, no member state has ever left the European Union or its predecessor bodies.

Executive (Wales)

The Assembly Government (sometimes referred to as the Welsh Executive or the Cabinet) is formed by the party or parties with the majority of seats in the Assembly. The First Minister (sometimes referred to as the First Secretary) is elected by Assembly Members (AMs) and, as such, is normally the leader of the largest party....

European single market

The principal objective of the EU, when first constituted as the EEC, was to make war in Europe impossible by developing both a common system of law and making member states' economies completely interdependent.

Elections (Wales)

The Assembly is made up of 60 Assembly Members (known as AMs), elected by the Additional Member System, a form of proportional representation. Elections are normally held every four years on the first Thursday in May. Anyone who can stand for election to the House of Commons may stand for election to the Welsh Assembly....

Euro and EMU

What is EMU? The principal objective of the European Union, when first constituted as the European Economic Community, was to make war in Europe impossible by developing a common system of law and making the member states’ economies completely interdependent. This has been pursued by the creation of a Single Market and subsequently the establishment...

European Union

The European Union is a supranational and international organisation that brings together 27 member states under a common system of law, established by a series of treaties. The member states are as follows: Belgium, Germany, France, Luxembourg, Italy, Netherlands, UK, Ireland, Denmark, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Austria, Sweden, Finland, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania,...

Euthanasia

What is Euthanasia? Euthanasia comes from Greek, meaning ‘pleasant death’. It typically refers to the killing of a person for their own (or another) good, usually to end their suffering. While virtually no-one in modern society would condone involuntary euthanasia, ‘mercy killings’ and ‘assisted suicides’, where the person killed consents to his or her fate,...

EU Enlargement

The EU agreed to begin proceedings to admit a large number of new member states from Eastern and Central Europe in 1997, and the accession process began in 1998. Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia joined the EU on May 1st 2004. Whilst the EU had...

Electoral Reform and Voting Systems

Proportional Representation (PR) is the principle behind a number of electoral systems, all of which attempt to ensure that the outcome of the election reflects the proportion of support gained by each competing group.

European Monetary Union

Economic and monetary union (EMU) was a goal for the EU proclaimed as far back as the 1960s, but one which was not pursued with much vigour or success until the late 1980s, when the Single European Act added a chapter to the treaties formally setting the EU on the road to EMU. Not only...

EU Economic Policies

The principal objective of the EU – when first constituted as the EEC – was to make war in Europe impossible not only by developing a common system of law, but also by making the member states' economies completely interdependent. This has been pursued by the creation of a single market and subsequently the establishment...

EU Legislative Processes

The EU's legislative process is more complex than that which operates at Westminster – this reflects the institutional arrangement, the international character of the EU and the extent of diversity that must be accommodated in the EU's actions, and the shifting basis of the EU's 'constitution' (the treaties). For a proposal to become law, the...

EU Law

There are three sources of law within the EU legal system: 'Primary legislation' – the treaties and agreements of similar status 'Secondary legislation' – laws made under the powers established by the treaties Case law – the accumulated body of legal decisions built up by the European courts Together, this body of jurisprudence constitutes the...

European Courts

There are two European courts, which have the task of interpreting and enforcing EU law: the European Court of Justice and the European Court of the First Instance. Both are based in Luxembourg. These bodies should not be confused with the European Court of Human Rights, which is an arm of the Council of Europe,...

Elections (Europe)

By Jonathan Moore The Election The European elections this year represent the largest trans-national elections in history. From the 27 member states of the European Union (EU) 736 MEPs will be elected by an electorate of more than 500 million over a period of three days between June 4-7. In the UK, elections are traditionally...