Construction of the HS2 rail link and the government’s reforms to planning laws were among the issues believed to have figured prominently in the Conservatives losing Chesham & Amersham for the first time.

Former MP Cheryl Gillan, whose death in April prompted the by-election, was a strong opponent of HS2 and at odds with the government over the issue.

Likewise, new Lib Dem MP Sarah Green campaigned heavily against HS2, despite the Lib Dems supporting the London to Manchester rail line at a national level.